The following Quick Help
is available in the tool's About
- c : Component Tool (creation)
- p : Path Tool (creation/continuation)
- s : Select Tool
- Del : Delete Components/Paths/Path Elements
- m : Select All Map Elements
- Esc : Deselect All Map Elements
- u, PageUp : Install Parent Map
- d, PageDown : Install Submap
- l : Lower Last Component
- e : Full Editing
- f : Fix Components
- a : Fix All Positions
- UP : Scroll Up
- DOWN : Scroll Down
- LEFT : Scroll Left
- RIGHT : Scroll Right
- + : Zoom In
- - : Zoom Out
- v : Fit Virtual Area
- = : Fit Map
Group Move Operations
- Shift+UP : Move Up
- Shift+DOWN : Move Down
- Shift+LEFT : Move Left
- Shift+RIGHT : Move Right
The underlined characters in the menus are reachable
through the ALT key (Unix versions). For example:
- ALT-F ALT-S calls the Save action in the File menu.
- ALT-F ALT-P calls the Print action in the File menu.
Navigating the Workspace
The UCM Navigator allows UCMs to be constructed anywhere in
the workspace. The virtual area is larger than what is
usually visible on the screen using 100% magnification.
When the workspace cannot be shown in its entirety, scroll bars
appear on the right and bottom sides. Scrolling with these bars
shows different areas of the workspace. To show more or less of
the workspace at once, click on the Scale button and choose a
magnification level. Several useful magnification levels are
- Fit Map: automatically calculates a zoom level to fit all of the current UCM on screen.
- Fit Virtual Area: zooms out to show the entire workspace on the screen at once. Resizing the UCM Navigator window also changes the amount of the workspace visible at any given time.
To create a path, select the Path tool by clicking on the Path
button with either the left or right mouse button. Right-clicking
the Path button will always start a new path; left-clicking will
start a new path if no path is currently selected, or continue
the currently selected path if one exists.
To begin, left-click once in the workspace to place the start
point of the path. Further clicks in the work area will extend
the current path, placing an empty point at the location of each
click and connecting the new point to the last point. If a new
point falls within the boundaries of a component, it is
automatically bound to that component.
To begin a new path, first de-select the current path by clicking
the Select button and clicking on a blank area of the workspace,
or right-click on the Path button, or press the escape key ("Esc").
Continue as noted above.
To create a component, first click the Component button to select
the Component tool. Then, click and drag the left button in the
workspace to anchor one corner of the component. Proceed to
drag the mouse to the desired location of the opposite corner.
By default new components are created as teams but all
component characteristics can be changed by way of the
component attributes dialog box. This dialog box is invoked
either through a component's own popup menu or by double-
clicking on a component.
Components can also be copied and pasted through the
appropriate functions in the Components menu or in the
Selecting a Component or Path Element
To select a component or a path element (including empty points,
start points and end points), click on the Select tool and
left-click once inside the boundary of the desired component or
Addition of UCM Path Elements
To add UCM elements to paths such as responsibilities, forks,
or timers, first use the Select tool (Select button). Select the
path point handle (small circle, use the menu Options -- Show
Data Points) where it is desired to add the element. Right
clicking will then bring up a context sensitive popup menu of
applicable "single-element transformations". Each UCM element
on a path will have its own list of transformations that may be
invoked by the user. Element attributes are also accessible
through this popup menu.
Several transformations such as the creation of joins require
the selection of two UCM elements and are thus termed "double-
element transformations". Select the first element of
interest and then hold down the Shift key while clicking the
Alternatively a selection rectangle can be drawn around the
two elements by dragging out a rectangle with the select tool
The popup menu of applicable transformations is then invoked in
the same manner as for single-element transformations, i.e. by
The UCM Navigator has the capability to select multiple elements
which may be either path elements or software components.
Group selections can be used for group moves, alignments, and
Elements (either path elements or components) may be selected
by either selecting them individually with the Shift key pressed
or by dragging out a selection rectangle which will select all
path elements and components inside its borders. Selection
rectangles are created simply by dragging out rectangles with
the Select tool chosen.
If the start point of the rectangle is inside a component and it
is not desired to select and move the component, the selection
rectangle can be drawn by holding down the Control key while
dragging out the rectangle. Holding the Control key inhibits
selection and subsequent moving of an enclosing component.
Alternatively both of these methods can be combined with a
selection rectangle used to select a number of elements and the
shift select method can be used to add additional elements to
this group selection.
There is also a deselection mechanism whereby if the Shift key
is pressed and a previously selected path element or component
is selected again it is deselected and removed from the list of
selected elements and components. The escape key ("Esc")
deselects any selection.
Additionally if it is desired to select all of the path elements
and components in a map (e.g. for moving all map elements)
this can be accomplished with the "Select All Map Elements"
operation in the Components menu or by using the "m" keyboard
Group Move and Alignment Operations
Once a multiple selection of components and path elements is
made, it can be moved as a group through the use of the right
mouse button for coarse movement and Shift - arrow key
combinations for fine control.
Moving a group of one or two elements can be done by pressing
the Control key and right-clicking. This prevents a popup
menu with double-element transformations to appear.
In addition once a multiple selection is made, alignment and
distribution operations invoked by the Align main menu item can
be performed. It should be mentioned that the editing mode has
no effect on either the group move or alignment operations.
The Fix Components and Fix All Positions modes are intended to
allow users to prevent undesired component and path element
movement when the user intends simply to select elements and not
to move them. As the group move and alignment operations are
explicitly invoked by the user there is no need to prevent them
based on the editing mode in effect.
To delete components, paths and path elements, select the Delete
item in their respective popup menus or press the delete key
("Del"). Paths are deleted by deleting their start point.
Multiple selections can be used for group deletion via the
delete key ("Del").
Several path elements cannot be deleted:
- Or-Forks and And-Forks: undesired branches must be removed manually by deleting the first empty point on each such branch which follows the fork element.
- Or-Joins and And-Joins: undesired branches must be removed manually by decomposing the first empty point on each such branch which precedes the join element.
- Stubs with more than one input or output segment: segments must be removed manually by decomposing the first empty point on each such segment which precedes or follows the stub. Stubs with one input segment and one output segment can be deleted.
- Timers with timeout paths: the timeout path must be deleted first by selecting the "Delete Timeout Path" item in the timer's popup menu.
- End points: the whole path or branch needs to be deleted.
- Single empty/control point between two path elements: at least one empty point must be present at any time between two path elements. Empty points enable path transformations and the addition of new path elements.
Adding Plug-ins to Stubs
Plug-ins (submaps) can be added to stubs in different ways by
right-clicking on a stub:
- Create New Sub Map: Asks for the submap name, and then adds a submap of that name under the selected stub. Submaps can be edited in the same manner that maps are.
- Import Plugin From File: Installs a submap from a UCM file into the current Stub.
- Install Existing Plugin: Adds a submap found under another Stub into the selected dynamic stubs list of available plugins. Modifications made to that submap are reflected globally in all stubs which contain the submap.
- Image of Existing Plugin: Identical to Install Existing Plugin, but makes a copy of the submap so any modifications to it are local and do not affect other stubs or submaps.
- Transfer Root Map: Transforms a root map into a plugin for the selected stub.
Plug-ins can be bound to a stub by selecting how stub input and
output segments are connected to start points and end points in
Additionally, a selection policy can be added to a dynamic stub.
This policy explains the conditions under which one or more
plug-ins are selected.
Selection/Creation of Root/Plug-in Maps
The Maps menu contains a Select Map option which enables the
selection of a specific root/plug-in map to be viewed.
Additional root maps can be created with the Create New Root
map function in the same menu.
The Decomposition Level window allows the direct navigation in a
hierarchy of plug-ins.
Creation and Use of UCM Sets
UCM sets regroup root maps and plug-in maps. Sets can be used
to restrict the navigation, to export UCMs or EPS/MIF/CGM/SVG
graphics, or to print UCMs.
A set is created by selecting Create New UCM Set in the Maps
menu. Root maps and plug-ins can be added to the set, which
can also have a name, a description, and a primary map.
When navigating a design, the current map can be added to or
removed from any predefined UCM set (through the Maps menu).
Saving and Loading UCM Designs
The File menu contains options for loading UCMs from disk. Note
that loading a UCM into memory will overwrite any existing UCMs.
If there are unsaved changes, the UCM Navigator will present a
dialog box asking if the current map should be saved.
UCMs may be saved to disk using either the Save or Save As
commands in the File menu. The files are saved by default with a
.ucm extension and are stored in XML format. Backup files
(.ucm.bak) are automatically created.
The Options menu contains an Autosave function which can
optionally be set to various intervals. The resulting files
have a .aus extension. Such files can be copied and renamed
manually when the tool crashes, or can be loaded using
Revert from Autosave in the File menu.
The UCM export/import mechanism enables the concurrent
development of one or many UCM designs.
To export UCMs, select the Export Maps command in the File
menu. Options allow the export of the current UCM (with or
without the bound submaps) or of a particular UCM set.
Exported UCMs can be imported in two ways:
- As plug-ins: choose a stub and select Import Plugin From File in its popup menu.
- As root maps: select the Import Root Map command from the File menu or from the Maps menu.
When imported, responsibilities and components with conflicting
names can optionally be duplicated (and renamed) or transformed
into references to existing responsibilities/components.
Further, the Utilities menu contains tools which allow duplicated
responsibilities/components to be transformed, at any time, into
references to other existing responsibilities/components.
UCM Reports and Printouts
UCM reports can be printed by accessing the Print command in
the File menu. UCMs may be printed to an installed printer or to a
(.ps) file. Under Windows, we strongly advise the
generation of a PostScript
When printing, options exist to specify what additional
elements should be included in the report, including the current
date and time, descriptions of elements, etc. Other options
allow the printing of the current UCM (with or without the
bound submaps), of a particular UCM set, or of all UCMs.
output is PDF-enabled, i.e. hyperlinks on UCM
stubs and plug-in names are automatically created, and an index
is automatically generated. The PostScript
files can be
transformed into a PDF file with external tools such as Adobe
Acrobat Distiller or ps2pdf.
Generation of EPS/MIF/CGM/SVG Graphics
UCM drawings can be exported to four graphical formats:
- .eps (Encapsulated Postscript, for publishing)
- .mif (Maker Interchange Format, for FrameMaker)
- .cgm (Computer Graphics Metafile, for Office applications)
- .svg (Scalable Vector Graphics, for Web documents)
Select the appropriate item in the File Menu. Options allow
the export of the current UCM (with or without the bound
submaps), of a particular UCM set, or of all UCMs. The files
are currently being generated in the UCMNAV_HOME directory.
In order to specify named end-to-end scenarios through a complex
system, which are needed for MSC/XML generation and for scenario
highlighting, it is necessary to create scenario definitions
which reference a global data model for the design.
There are three steps for creating scenario definitions.
- Define a set of global boolean variables for the design.
- Define logical selection conditions at branching points (OR-forks, timers, and dynamic stubs ) which reference the global variables.
- Define a set of scenario definitions which specify:
- initial values for relevant variables
- a list of path start points
- an optional postcondition
Scenario definitions are also regrouped under scenario groups.
Scenario definitions can be used in combination with a UCM path
traversal mechanism to highlight the segments that are visited.
Elements and segments visited once are colored in red, whereas
those visited many times are in colored in orange.
Scenario highlight can be performed via the scenario window
(accessible from the Scenario menu). Right-clicking on a start
point and selecting "List Scenarios" will also generate a list
of scenarios where this start point belongs.
Once paths are highlighted, the navigation mode is restricted
to the plug-ins visited by the scenario. Removing the
highlighting and getting back to a full navigation mode can
be done throught the scenario menu.
The traversal can generate warnings and errors along the way.
For instance, for a specific scenario definitions, there could
be non-determinism (two branches or plug-ins can be selected),
or deadlocks (conditions or synchronizations that cannot be
The colored paths can be exported in EPS/MIF/CGM/SVG files.
Scenario definitions can be used for generating Message
Sequence Charts in the Z.120 textual form. ".msc" files are
created for scenarios in a way similar to scenario highlight.
The MSC files can be visualized using commercial and research
tools (e.g. Telelogic Tau 4.4)
XML Scenario Generation
Scenario definitions can also be used for generating scenarios
in an intermediate XML format, valid according to the DTD
scenario1.dtd. Such XML scenario can be postprocessed (e.g.
with XSLT) and transformed into other representations such
as MSC, UML sequence/collaboration/activity diagrams, TTCN
test cases, etc.
DOORS DXL Export
Several UCM elements can be exported to the DOORS requirements
management system. UCMNav can generate DXL scripts which can be
run in DOORS and update the DOORS database. These UCM
elements can be linked to other types of requirements, enabling
traceability between scenarios and external requirements.
A DXL library is required to run the script (available upon
request to email@example.com
UCM models can be exported to CSM (Core Scenario Model), an
intermediate format used by various tools for performance analysis
(e.g. layered queueing networks, timed Petri nets, and simulation).
For Additional Information...
Please consult the UCM Navigator User's Manual, available at: http://www.UseCaseMaps.org/
- 21 Feb 2006